Freedom of speech is the right of a person to articulate opinions and ideas without interference or retaliation from the government. The term “speech” constitutes expression that includes far more than just words, but also what a person wears, reads, performs, protests and more.
In the United States, freedom of speech is strongly protected by the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution, as well as many state and federal laws. The United States’ free speech protections are among the strongest of any democracy; the First Amendment protects even speech that many would see as offensive, hateful or harassing.
The Constitution prohibits UC Irvine, as a public institution, from banning or punishing speech based on its content or viewpoint. Because campus policy permits Registered Campus Organizations to invite speakers to campus and provides access to campus venues for that purpose, the university cannot take away that right or withdraw those resources based on the views of the invited speaker. Doing so would violate the First Amendment rights of the student group. Only under extraordinary circumstances, described below in the “Which types of speech are not protected by the First Amendment?” section, can an event featuring a speaker invited this way be cancelled.
Secondly, once a speaker has been invited by a student group, the campus is obligated and committed to acting reasonably to ensure that the speaker is able to safely and effectively address his or her audience, free from violence or disruption.
This all means that, over the next few years, some of your most deeply held views may be challenged. So be prepared for that.
But don’t worry about it. Finding yourself challenged by faculty, fellow students and even outsiders comes with the territory of having made the decision to pursue higher education. It is, in fact, the entire point.
We cannot and should not keep you safe from ideas in society that you don’t like. We are committed to empowering you to engage with ideas, not shielding you from ideas that we think you can’t handle. You are here to learn how to handle all ideas, regardless of how complex or controversial.
As the great University of California President Clark Kerr put it during the free speech debates of the 1960s, “the university is not engaged in making ideas safe for students. It is engaged in making students safe for ideas.”
This is why we cannot and will not censor or punish people merely because they express ideas we do not like. We will not prevent someone from speaking on campus merely because of the views that will be expressed. We will not deny someone access to a campus venue because of the content of their speech.
We will protect members of the campus community and their invited guests and speakers from efforts to silence them through disruptive activities. Of course, no one has a right to be free from criticism, and we will always ensure that members of the campus community can peacefully protest or hold competing events.
Let us commit to learning as much as we can from each other, and beyond that, let us commit to supporting each other as human beings engaged in a common enterprise to generate and transmit knowledge to humanity.
In a world where too many people seek out that which divides us, let us remain united, and let us go that extra mile to deepen our understanding of each other, to build bridges, to talk rather than yell, to debate rather than fight, to love rather than hate, to protect rather than exploit.
Let us model for the world how a diverse community can live and work together, even when we do not always agree.
No, this would violate established law and the rights of student groups to invite whoever they wish to the UC Irvine campus. Only student groups who invite speakers have the authority to disinvite them.
The Supreme Court has said that public entities like UC Irvine have discretion in regulating the “time, place, and manner” of speech. The right to speak on campus is not a right to speak any time, at any place and in any manner that a person wishes. The campus can regulate where, when and how speech occurs to ensure the functioning of the campus and achieve important goals, such as protecting public safety.
When it comes to high-profile speakers, UC Irvine invokes this necessary authority in order to hold events at a time and location that maximizes the chance that an event will proceed successfully and that the campus community will not be made unsafe. The campus heeds its police department’s assessment of how best to hold safe and successful events. The campus might invoke its time, place and manner discretion, for example, to ensure that an event with a high-profile speaker would be held in a venue that the campus police believes to be protectable (e.g. one with an ample number of exits, with the ability to be cordoned off, without floor to ceiling glass, etc.).
The need to consider time, place and manner regulations is the reason that we require students and other groups to work with the administration when setting up their events, as opposed to scheduling and creating the events on their own without campus input.
The Constitution guarantees freedom of speech by default, placing the burden on the government to demonstrate whether there are any circumstances that justify its limitation.
When it comes to controversial speakers delivering remarks on campus, the relevant exceptions to the First Amendment that have been established are:
- Speech that would be deemed a “true threat:” Speech that a person reasonably would perceive as an immediate threat to his or her physical safety is not protected by the First Amendment. For example, if a group of students yelled at a student in a menacing way that would cause the student to fear a physical assault, such speech would not be protected.
- Incitement of illegal activity: There is no right to incite people to break the law, including to commit acts of violence. To constitute incitement, the Supreme Court has said that there must be a substantial likelihood of imminent illegal activity and the speech must be directed to causing imminent illegal activity. For example, a speaker on campus who exhorts the audience to engage in acts of vandalism and destruction of property is not protected by the First Amendment if there is a substantial likelihood of imminent illegal activity.
- Harassment: Speech or other expression in an educational institution aimed at an individual on the basis of a protected characteristic (race, gender, sexual orientation, religion); that is also pervasive and severe; is a direct or implied threat to employment or education; or creates an intimidating, hostile and demeaning atmosphere is not protected. For example, posting racist messages on the dorm room of an African American student would be regarded as harassment and not speech protected by the First Amendment.
The term “hate speech” does not have a legal definition in the United States, but it often refers to speech that insults or demeans a person or group of people on the basis of attributes such as race, religion, ethnic origin, sexual orientation, disability or gender. While the university condemns speech of this kind, there is no “hate speech” exception to the First Amendment; hate speech is only illegal if it falls into one of the categories described above. In fact, on many occasions, the Supreme Court has explicitly held that prohibitions or punishments for hateful speech violate the First Amendment.
The Supreme Court has made it clear that a public institution like UC Irvine cannot prevent speech on the grounds that it is likely to provoke a hostile response. Stopping speech before it occurs is called a “prior restraint,” and prior restraints of speech are almost never allowed.
While the campus is constitutionally required and committed to doing what it can to protect speakers and to prevent disruption or violence, if despite all efforts by the campus there is a serious threat to public safety and no other alternative, a speaker’s event can be cancelled. This is a last resort, and never done based on the views of the speaker. The campus’s paramount need is to protect the safety of its students, staff and faculty.
Absolutely. UC Irvine supports the notion of a “marketplace of ideas,” in which speech that a person disagrees with should be met with more speech that engages and debates it. The First Amendment and the university are founded on the premise that we are all better off if ideas can be expressed and responded to, rather than be subject to an imposed orthodoxy of belief and punished for deviating from it.
Free speech is particularly important to a university like UC Irvine whose goal is the discovery and establishment of truth. Many ideas now fundamental to our understanding of the universe and our place in it – such as evolution or climate change – were initially attacked. Freedom of speech is so important to the university that one of the university’s bedrock principles is academic freedom, which protects faculty in their research and teaching, as well as students in their learning.
Safety and Community
When there is a threat of violence in our community, the UC Irvine administration works closely with Student Affairs staff, UCIPD, the City of Irvine and/or other groups to develop and communicate safety plans to the campus. Generally, we advise that if students see violence occurring, they should separate themselves from it, report what they see to police and follow police instructions. When events are occurring that have the potential to endanger students, UCIPD uses the text and email messaging service zotALERT to keep the campus informed about developments in real time.
Additionally, UC Irvine offers many resources, including counseling services, for students who have been affected physically, mentally or emotionally by such events. Visit Wellness, Health & Counseling Services for more information.
Critical statements, and even the ridicule of individuals, are still largely protected by the Constitution. The law under the First Amendment is clear that the campus cannot exclude speakers on this basis. If the campus believed that a speaker was going to engage in speech that was directed at an individual and not protected by the First Amendment – such as by repeating statements that had been found to be defamatory or by revealing publicly very private facts about an individual – the campus would do all that it could to prevent this and to protect the person.
UC Irvine’s principles of community are an affirmation of the value of each member of the UC Irvine community and serve as a guide for our personal and collective behavior.
While student groups have the right to free speech and to invite speakers of all kinds to campus, we encourage these groups to consider that such autonomy and independence comes with a moral responsibility for the consequences of their words, actions, events and invitations. As such, we ask that groups consult the principles of community in order to determine whether an action is consistent with their own and with our community’s values.
UC Irvine Event Policies
UC Irvine’s event policy can be found on the Policies and Procedures website. The policy enables sponsors to plan and host successful events on campus and enables UCI to ensure the safety and security of the UCI community and its guests. The policy uses content- and viewpoint-neutral factors to identify events that can benefit from additional planning.
The Constitution, and its protection of rights, applies only to the government. Public universities are directly bound by the First Amendment to uphold the right to free speech. Because private schools are not state actors, those schools’ administrations may generally impose whatever restrictions they wish on speech or on visitors to campus. Additional laws may also guide their actions, however; in California, for example, a state statute says that private universities cannot punish speech that the First Amendment prevents from being punished in public universities.
Several public universities have recently denied requests from a white nationalist to speak on their campuses, citing the violence in Charlottesville as cause to invoke prior restraint in the name of public safety. In previous attempts to block the speaker from speaking on campuses, the speaker has sued those campuses and won. Lawsuits have already been filed against some of the public universities that recently denied the speaker's requests.
Cancelling events must be a last resort to be used only when the campus, despite taking all reasonable steps, believes that it cannot protect the safety of its students, staff and faculty. Events can never legally be canceled based on the likely offensiveness of the speaker’s message.
If UC Irvine were to illegally cancel the talk of a speaker invited by a student group, it could be sued by the speaker or by the student group. A court could issue an order requiring the campus to allow the speaker. The court could also potentially award money damages to the speaker and student group. Finally, the campus, if it loses such a lawsuit, would also be liable for paying the attorney fees of the speaker and student group. There are many instances, including in California, where public universities have been sued in exactly this way when they have tried to exclude speakers.
The university does not charge student groups different fees to host speakers based on the invited speaker or the content of his or her speech. Doing so would constitute a breach of students’ First Amendment rights.
Yes, we encourage expression in protest of other expression. The campus encourages all who engage in protest activity to do so safely. Below are some reminders for how to protest safely:
- Avoid activity that infringes on the rights of others, such as blocking and preventing the movement or access of others.
- Follow the lawful instructions of a police officer or public official, such as staying behind barricades, dispersing from an area declared an unlawful assembly, not resisting arrest. It is against the law to disobey a lawful order by a police officer.
- Leave the area where others are engaging in illegal activities and acts of violence. Your presence may be interpreted as participating in a riot or illegal group action. Staying overnight in a campus building after hours is prohibited.
- Refrain from speech that incites others to commit acts of violence such as pushing, kicking or spitting on others, destruction of property or other unlawful actions.
- Make informed decisions. If you choose to engage in civil disobedience and get arrested, know the potential consequences. See Office of the Dean of Students for more information.
No, freedom of speech does not give someone the right to drown out the words and speech of others; freedom of speech would mean little if the audience was able to silence anyone with whom they disagreed. Once a society starts down the path of condoning such de facto censorship, it creates the culture and conditions in which anyone’s rights of speech can be compromised.
As discussed above in the section “What are ‘time, place and manner’ restrictions? How do they relate to controversial speakers?”, the Supreme Court has said that public entities like UC Irvine have discretion in regulating the “time, place and manner” of speech. The right to speak on campus is not a right to speak any time, at any place and in any manner that a person wishes. These restrictions do not vary depending on the views or ideas being expressed; rather they are about ensuring that speech occurs in a way that does not disrupt the campus’s educational mission or endanger public safety.
The university has developed rules and regulations related to protest that are designed to prevent substantial disruption of educational activities, protect lawful access to campus programs and facilities, avoid unsafe behavior and prevent the destruction of property. Their application does not vary according to the cause or content of a particular protest, speech, or other form of expression, and the rules and regulations are designed to enable extensive opportunity for expressive activity. Learn more about these regulations on the Office of the Dean of Students website.